Since its inception, the world religion - Islam has always played an important role in world processes. For almost 1500 years of existence of Islam, the people of the Muslim world have managed to find a rational way of organically combining their national cultures and Islamic faith, indigenous traditions and development. Thanks to this, in a vast space of three parts of the world from Morocco to China, from Russia to Indonesia, a unique ethno-cultural and ethno-confessional structure, including a multitude of people, cultures and states, arose.
At the moment we are witnessing the process of the enforced disappearance of this way of life. The example of Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Syria and other countries shows how radical groups destroyed over the centuries, organically existing in these countries, various cultural and ethnic communities and groups. Due to these incessant conflicts, the Muslim world, to great regret, is suffering enormous irreplaceable human and cultural losses.
The totality of internal problems, from the complication of the socioeconomic situation to the degradation of the education system, as well as the unacceptably low level of trust and cooperation between Muslim countries, serve as a breeding ground for the actions of extremist organizations and the dissemination of radical ideas.
In a global geopolitical competition for power, territory and resources, destructive forces skillfully use any means to achieve their goals. The population of Muslim countries becomes victims of extremists who skillfully exploit their religious feelings and values. One of the ways to stir up conflicts on the part of extremist forces is their thesis about the fundamental incompatibility of Islamic dogma and the national traditions of the Muslim oecumene. Despite the very fact of the existence of the multistructural and multicultural Islamic world, the mentioned thesis is still open on the new round of development.
This article is an attempt to generalize the complementary foundations of the traditional Kyrgyz worldview and Islam.
The foundations of the traditional Kyrgyz worldview
The traditional worldview of the Kyrgyz people is imbued with ideas of integrity, harmony, unity in diversity and complementarity. Through the prism of ontology, the Kyrgyz world relation is spatially oriented and marked by the breadth of life's perception, which is not limited to values or spiritual views alone. It is the spiritual fullness of life in the coexistence of value, ideological and activity manifestations that reflects the type of harmonious way of the Kyrgyz tradition and gives rise to a symphonic harmony between man and the world around him. The idea of unity in the worldview of the Kyrgyz was understood in the flexibility of the laws of existence and spiritual openness to the new. The universality of the manifested harmony was reflected both in the value variety of norms and ideals, and in the social organization of people's life through a developed tribal network and flexible mechanisms of social co-organization between them. In the conditions of a spatial relationship of the world, there is a lack of a single ontological center, which did not form a stable political vertical and the sacredness of power. The principles of social equality and the developed democratic mechanisms of social co-organization were based on a deep sense of respect for life and a careful attitude towards it. Unity in a variety of forms informed the order of the conservative and traditional way of development, where any qualitative change required ontological subsidence deep into spiritual space and flexible synchronization with established traditional foundations. As a result, the axial change took root in long chronological periods and passed the inner cycle of civilizational synchronization, absorbing the immanent algorithms of the established world order. The peculiarity of such changes was the organic combination of various spiritual and activity practices in the spiritual code of tradition. The polycentricity of the Kyrgyz world relationship allowed us to save the entire set of value and practice patterns and, thus, to develop an increased adaptability in the relationship with the world around us.
Specificity of Perception of Transcendence in the Traditional Kyrgyz Worldview
Since the traditional outlook of the Kyrgyz was formed by conditions of environmental centrism, God, who established order in the cosmic code of life, was personified by the sky and did not possess an abstract self-image.
The Islamic concept of God was originally more understandable to the Kyrgyz and formed a theological proximity to their beliefs, since Islam does not allow objectifying the existence of God with the help of figurative symbolic techniques, which determined on this level the integration of spiritual and ritual practices and prayers. This contributed to the strengthening of the existential sense of the divine presence.
Veneration of life and the mechanisms of its maintenance
Central to the Kyrgyz worldview is the self-worth of life. The entire culture of Kyrgyz, beginning with the veneration of the laws of nature and the inadmissibility of their violation (the principle of cosmic harmony and the established balance of life) and ending with oral folk art, inspires a rising optimism and forms a careful and dubious attitude to life. Form-forming source in the Kyrgyz philosophy was the category of Kut, ie. vital energy and strength, the pervasive life of the pulsating life that unites the multidimensionality of the material and spiritual world into an inseparable unity.
Since an important aspect in Islamic theology is the veneration of life in its bodily and spiritual terms, the Islamic logos with its elaborated system of law perfectly corresponded to the Kyrgyz people's perception of the original self-worth of life, as well as ways to maintain and build legal and social communications on the platform of Islamic law with a set of public institutions.
Normalization of life and order
The peculiarity of the cyclic nature-centric systems, to which the Kyrgyz belong, is the ultimate normality of life, where the norm, on the one hand, allows regulating relations between people and the outside world, and on the other, transforms the spiritual tradition to the language of communication.
Due to its regulatory nature and detailing, Islamic fiqh (law) has very organically combined with traditional Kyrgyz law - adat. An important feature of Islamic fiqh is the severity and rigidity of punishment, which was extremely important for centrally-based systems based on the ideal of a pulsating life force.
The principle of equality and social values
In the traditional Kyrgyz society, the principles of harmony and balance with the surrounding world determined the whole spectrum of social relations, including economic and tribal ones. This prevented a sharp polarization of society and ensured social justice based on these principles.
In Islam, justice refers to key fundamental values. All people are recognized as being equal to each other from the outset, which is why any discrimination based on origin, social and property status is condemned.
As the above review shows, the spiritual conjugation of two cultures - traditional Kyrgyz and Islamic - was not spontaneous and sporadic, but was an expression of the spiritual harmony of the Kyrgyz world relationship and Islamic ontology. The process of Kyrgyz adoption of Islamic spiritual practices, as well as the norms of the Shariah and social institutions, occurred according to the above principles of cultural synergy, and each time was creatively reconstructed in accordance with the traditional way of life and according to the worldview of the Kyrgyz. The integration of Islam proceeded in the logic of deep integration of ontological foundations, which played an important role in the broad cultural and historical context, in the formation and deepening of the civilizational identity of the Kyrgyz people.
The history of interaction of the Kyrgyz people and Islam has its roots in antiquity and counts by different standards for over a thousand years. Over the past centuries, Islamic norms have become an integral part of our culture.
Polycentricity of the Kyrgyz tradition has determined the horizontal nature of its integration with Islam. It is significant that the spread of Islam among the Kyrgyz people proceeded more successfully through Sufi dervishes. The Sufi sense of Islam was much easier to get accustomed to in the Kyrgyz environment, because it originally concluded softness and subtle spirituality in the confession of faith, which did not violate the established way of life.
History has shown that an organic synthesis of the national tradition and Islamic dogma can become a powerful source of civilizational development and mutual intercultural enrichment.
During the 8th - 12th centuries, the Islamic world was the center and locomotive of the development of mankind. In history, this period of time is called the "golden age of Islam." The Muslim nations developed science, art, and philosophy. In Central Asia, it is a phenomenon of Zhusup Balasagyn, Mahmud Kashgari, Alisher Navoi, Al-Biruni, Al-Fergani, Al-Khwarizmi and many others.
As a result of deepening relations with Islam, the inner logic of the developmental location of the Central Asian region has brought its spiritual content to Islamic belief. Thus, in Samarkand, the spiritual center of the region, an Islamic aqyda (creed) emerged, created by Abu Mansoor al-Maturidi, marked by high theological merits and depth of religious experience. The Maturidic aqyda incorporated the key values of the development of our region - moderation, tolerance and unity in the diversity of values and life practices - without violating the traditional foundations of the world order, which became an important condition for its successful spread in our value landscape and the organic combination of the depth of Islamic faith with worldview of the local people.
To this day, historians argue about the reasons for this flourishing. Most likely, the main secret of the flourishing of the Islamic world in the past was to find ways to organically combine faith and national cultures, traditions and development, mutual respect and cooperation between different ethnic groups and cultures.
Trustful and friendly relations with Islam must be developed on the basis of unique features of our country, which we achieved in conditions of openness and democratization of the system, which formed a unique experience of mutual relations with Islam on the principles of trust and partnership.
And today the future of Kyrgyzstan and the entire Central Asian region depends on how successfully the mechanism of civilizational conjugation of local national cultures with Islamic teaching at a new stage of development will be found.